ART OF THE MASTERS Workshop

Hello, Artists,

gilbertsunnewsarticle6-2016

We are planning a workshop the week of November 14, 2016, which is our only opportunity window for quite a few months. Can you make it? We will also have a Free Prep Day on November 7, a week before the workshop, in order to help you get a wonderful start. The cost for the 5 days is $489.

Art of the Masters Workshop
When: Nov. 14-18, 2016
Where:  Gilbert, Arizona
Time: daily, 9:00 – 5:00

If you feel undecided, maybe now is the time to get off that fence and embrace your true art self. We promise that you will get more step-by-step art instruction in one week with us, than you will get anywhere else, even in workshops that cost more than twice what we charge. We also give you helpful handouts (most art classes don’t) because we want you to be able to remember and continue working on what we’ve taught you. To us, the most important thing is continuing the legacy of the Old Masters, and we are passionate about passing on their wisdom and techniques to others. We would love to have you with us!

And like Maestro Frank Covino always did, we offer $100 off the cost of your tuition for each of your friends that sign up for the class.

Below is a sample of first-time student drawing (24″ x 30″), in preparation for painting.  Amazing, huh!

P1110792

Here are things needed for the Free Prep Day:

Materials for board preparation, graphing, and drawing:
Ampersand Gessobord brand surface
metal yardstick and ruler
ultra-fine Sharpies, various colors (black, blue, and red are probably enough)
General’s charcoal pencils, soft
kneaded eraser
High quality photo of Old Master painting to work from, printed on 8 1/2”x11” glossy photo paper, one grayscale, one color–Art Renewal Center is an excellent online museum source– https://artrenewal.org/pages/search.php
blending stumps (tortillions)
Exacto knife
spray workable fixative
clear tape
acetate

Other helpful items:
transparent 18” triangle
India ink and sable liner brush
artist’s white tape, removable

Please respond below, and we’ll get right back to you!

Marsha and Karen
Art of the Masters

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FRANK COVINO, LONG-TIME FRIEND AND MENTOR, HAS PASSED

Covino Portrait1P1070431PaintingWorkshopCovinoFrank4-2015

Dear Artists and Friends,

It is with ineffable sadness in our hearts, that I must report this news.  Our friend and long-time art teacher and mentor, Maestro Frank Covino, passed away suddenly on Tuesday, February 16, 2016, after being pronounced “cleared of cancer” just last week.

If I may use a bold simile, his loss feels like looking up at the mountains in Sugarbush, where Frank worked hard to build the home he loved, and seeing that the grandest of summits has disappeared from our sight.

Here is a note from his wife, Barbara Covino, that you will all want to read:

Subject: It is with a deep abiding sorrow in my heart that I write this letter…forgive the delay but it has taken time to believe this is true…

Beloved friends and family , one and all,

After two days of profoundest shock, and countless tears I realize I must write you.  It is with a heavy, heavy heart that i must inform you that dear Frank has passed away unexpectedly on Tuesday night, February 16th.  It was quick and he did not suffer–a death we would all prefer–but he had been progressing so well, it was a gut-wrenching shock that still is unbelievable.

I truly cannot imagine a world, or a life without him…32 years of happiness and adventure.  Life was never boring with him!!! What an amazing talent, a brilliant man with a wealth of knowledge, a gentle and sensitive man who had to excel in everything he did, and was thus an inspiration to all who knew him.  He encouraged others to strive for excellence and to believe in themselves, giving them the tools to create a positive reality in their lives, whether it be art or health.  We all can repeat that golden maxim: IT’S NEVER TOO LATE TO AMELIORATE! Wise encouraging words, those.

But he was more than the sum of his parts; he was a genuine force of nature, a real Renaissance man, but above all else, he had a kind heart and a very great soul. We all loved him so; there will never be another Frank.  But I know it is now time for each and every one of us who was touched by his life, to take that spark and pass it on.  He gave us wings and it is time for us to fly…Make him proud!!!

I am too choked up to continue writing.  God Bless each and every one of you who had a place in his heart…family, friends, students….He loved you all sincerely and without guile….

We are in the process of collaborating with the family and planning both a smaller family funeral as well as a larger set of celebrations of his life and legacy open to all who loved him–one in Vermont and one on Long island.  As soon as the Covino south clan and Mark and Jennifer and I hammer out the details, I will email you all, soon as can be done.

We are going to give that wonderful man a send off he won’t soon forget!!!

Love and blessings , Barbara Covino

PS: PLEASE FORWARD THIS to everyone you can think of. It has grown into a cast of hundreds, and forgive the delay but it has taken time to believe this is true.

PART 1, CLASSICAL ACADEMIC APPROACH–GET ARTSERIOUS

Artserious–a linguistic invention–so, it’s time to get artserious, begin at the beginning, and learn the classical academic painting process alluded to in this prior post.

As the Dalai Lama says, “Know the rules well so you can learn to break them effectively.” This is probably one of the most important reasons to have classical training and, although it is best received in person, teacher-student, I hope to help you through some of the same processes online that I teach my private students.  (If you are in the Phoenix Metro and want one-on-one lessons, contact me through this blog.)

In coming weeks, I will discuss the following: materials, design, compositional unity, applying the Golden Mean, Munsell’s color system and hue, value, and intensity, seven basic color schemes, aerial perspective, the cartoon, accurate enlargement/graphing and transferring to panel, gessoing masonite board, inking the drawing, sculpting with gesso for bas relief, the charcoal study, underpainting, mixing a flesh palette, and colored oil glazes.

It is a lengthy syllabus, but I hope you will profit from the instruction in some way.

Creating fine art is very much a science; therefore, you should come to this training with an open mind and put your previous painting experience on hold for awhile so that you can see with fresh eyes.  This is not quick art, but I promise you that with proper instruction and following the process outlined, along with self-discipline, persistence, and  patience, you can achieve the high degree of quality in your painting you have hoped for.  It is better to spend weeks on one excellent painting that can be considered significant art, than to spend a couple of hurried days on a piece that will end up in the trash.

Keep in mind there are preliminaries we will skip for now and come back to later, as I am sure you want to get to the actual creation of a portrait.  Beginning with how to get an accurate drawing, our ultimate purpose here is to get an excellent likeness and end up with a high quality, Renaissance-style classical academic painting that will never find itself in a garage sale.  You will be copying an Old Master oil portrait of your choice–you can paint family AFTER you have learned the basics and “mastered the Masters.”

Your first assignment:  Choose an Old Master portrait that you love.  Keep the goal in mind; you are learning the process here, so you will want to choose a picture that is not too complex, has clearly delineated eyes, nose, mouth, hair, clothing, and a simpler background.

I will be using Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring.

Make sure your reference is very high resolution, and high quality.  Two superb online sources are the Getty Museum or Art Renewal Center.  You should never undermine your efforts by beginning with inferior reference, as I have seen students who, despite admonition, try this and give up in frustration.

Print the reference on glossy photo paper, as it shows detail much better than other surfaces.  Print one in grayscale and one in color, ledger size if possible, otherwise 8 1/2″ x 11″.  You can put them on a flash drive or CD and have it printed at FedX or any print shop.  It is helpful to save the references on your computer desktop as well, for quick access.  I use my computer to enlarge certain small areas as I go along and need to get a closer look.  The computer, however, will not replace your printouts in this process.

Some Masters to consider for our purposes are (in no particular order):  Titian, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, David, Vermeer, Gerome, Godward, Leighton, Alma-Tadema, and Bouguereau are all excellent artists from which to learn, although there are so many more.

GeromeBlackBashi-Bazouk1869-26x32
Jean Leon Gerome, Black Bashi-bazouk, 1869, 26×32″

TitianFlora1515-22x31
Titian, Flora, 1515

Here are the materials you will need for the process:

Oil Painting Materials:
references
pens/pencils
extra-fine permanent markers(Sharpies), black, blue, green, red
acetate
General’s charcoal pencils
vine charcoal
blending stumps (tortillions)
metal yardstick
metal 18” ruler
transparent triangle, 18”
kneaded eraser
India ink and liner sable brush
spray workable fixative
Exacto knife
clear tape
artist’s white tape
Golden acrylic matte medium
Masonite or hardwood board
sandpaper very rough #40-60, very smooth #100-200
natural sponge
Knox Gelatin
paint roller for application of gesso
retouch varnish
Liquin
turpentine for brush cleaning
olive oil for brushes, cleaning hands, oiling palette
leak proof turpentine container
easel
plastic wrap
blue paper towels
mahl stick
notebook
palette knives

Brushes:
bright sable #2, 4, 10
flat bristle #2, 4, 10
round sable #1, 8
round bristle #0, 8
mongoose flat #6
mongoose round #0
mongoose filbert #4, 8

Paint:
*titanium white
*flake white
ivory black
mars black
chromium oxide green
pthalo blue
cadmium yellow light
yellow ochre
raw sienna
raw umber
cadmium orange
burnt sienna
burnt umber
cadmium red light
alizarin crimson permanent
cobalt violet
ultramarine violet
French ultramarine blue
cobalt blue
cerulean blue
viridian green
Shiva cadmium green
Grumbacher pthalo yellow green
Winsor and Newton Winsor orange
Indian yellow
napthol red light

*Avoid zinc white (PW4) whenever possible. It is often added to paint colors one would not suspect, such as in titanium white, lead white, and to various other colors to render them more transparent. It is also used as a filler to make them less expensive to manufacture.  Zinc white can make your paintings crack, according to extensive, lengthy studies done with conservators at the National Gallery of Art, Washington.

Also, buy the best quality paint you can afford, as student grade and many professional grades contain excessive aluminum stearate that causes darkening of the paint film over time.  Good commercial brands include professional grades of Utrecht, Williamsburg (both made in the U.S.), Old Holland (Netherlands), and Sennelier (France).  I like the unique textures of handmade paints as well, and buy from colormen like Robert Doak, Michael Harding, and Natural Pigments.

*marble-inclusive gesso
*values palette
*homemade medium

In the next post, we’ll discuss supports, marble-inclusive gesso, and the 9-value (+black and white) palette you will need.

PIGMENTS AND ASTM STANDARDS

ASTM Certification of 1947

ASTM Certification of 1947 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I am  rather obsessed by the quality of the materials I put into my paintings from the surface, up, for a number of reasons–not the least of which is I want them to be around l-o-o-o-ong after I’m gone. Also, when someone hires me to do a job, I want to make sure it is the best I can give–I feel I owe that to people placing their trust in me.

ASTM stands for the American Society for Testing and Materials and it is the organization that helps to internationally standardize a very large number of materials including paint. The “P” stands for “pigment” and the letter(s) stand for R-red, Y-yellow, B-blue, Br-brown, and so on. The numbers after the letters indicate the specific pigment. This is why you will find that the “PR83” (a very impermanent but much-loved pigment) on your paint tubes means “Pigment Red Alizarin Crimson” in the ASTM standard, no matter what brand of paint.

But you can’t go by the name companies put on the face of their tubes–that is just a label and an oftentimes misleading one.  For example, Utrecht has an oil paint labeled “Titanium White” but in checking the label closely, we find it is NOT just titanium white (PW6), but has zinc white (PW4) in it as well. PW4 has undergone extensive study at the Smithsonian Institute and they have determined it will make your paintings crack over time.  When I learned this, I checked all the tubes in my paintbox and got rid of the ones that had zinc white in them.

Here is what I’ve gathered in my research:

PIGMENT LIST

(* Do Not Use)

 REDS:

Cadmium Red PR 108 ASTM  l (ranges scarlet to maroon, slow drier, hard, flexible, use CP)

Pyrrole Red PR 254 ASTM  l (equal to Cads for permanence. Recommend replacing more poorly performing Napthols, Perylenes, and Anthraquinones with Pyrroles where similar shades exist. Pyrroles are pigments to trust. From auto industry research.)

Pyrrole Alizarin PR 264 ASTM l (BEST replacement for alizarin crimson; gorgeous undertone)

*Alizarin Crimson PR 83 ASTM l l l (brittle, cracks, darkens, too impermanent for enduring art)

*Rose Madder NR 9 ASTM  l l (textile dye, weak color)

Venetian Red PR 101 ASTM  l  aka English Red, Light Red, Red Oxide, Indian Red, Mars Red, Mars Violet, Caput Mortuum (Genuine Venetian Red from the quarry where Titian obtained his supplies is still available from Blockx.)

Quinacridone Magenta PR 122 ASTM l (bright blue-red, transparent, strong, very recommended)

Quinacridone Red, Quinacridone Violet PV 19 ASTM  l (true reds to lipstick pinks, deep rose to red-violets)

Quinacridone Red Y  PR 192  ASTM  l (bright, clean color, high lightfastness & tinting strength)

Quinacridone Scarlet  PR 207  ASTM  l (high performance pigment due to lightfastness)

Napthols fade in tints. Even those classed as ASTM 1 barely scrape in. Noticeably less light fast.  There are other reds that are far superior.

*Napthol Red F4HR  PR 7  aka Napthol AS-TR  ASTM  l  (beautiful bluish-red but fades)

*Napthol Red FG  PR 119  ASTM  l (clean, bright yellowish-red)

*Napthol Red HF3S  PR 188  ASTM  l (very pure yellowish-red)

*Napthol  ITR  PR 5  aka Napthol Carmine FB  ASTM  l l (deep crimson red)

*Napthatol AS-OL PR 9 aka Permanent Red FRLL  ASTM  l l (Poor light fastness esp. in tints)

*Napthol AS-OL  PR 14  aka Napthol Bordeaux FGR  ASTM  l l (very dark red)

*Napthol Red AS-D  PR 112  aka Permanent Red FGR, Permanent Carmine ASTM l l

*Napthol Red F5RK  PR 170  aka Napthol Carbamide  ASTM  l l (bright strong bluish-red)

*Napthol Red AS-D PR 17  aka Napthol Red  ASTM  l l l (too impermanent for serious artwork)

*Napthol Red PR 146 aka Napthol Carmine FBB ASTM  l l l  (notice how fading pigments get labeled “permanent”)

Light Red PR 102  ASTM  l (a beautiful, transparent red earth; Cenini gathered it w/his father)

Transparent Red Oxide PR 101 ASTM  l (Beautiful! transparent, redder than burnt sienna)

*Vermillion PR 106  (Poisonous!)

Perinone Red Deep PR 194 ASTM 1 (high performance deep red, recommended)

*Perylene Vermilion PR 123 ASTM l (bright transparent red; ALL perylenes fade in tints)

*Perylene Red BL PR 149 ASTM l (excellent brightness)

*Perylene Red PR 178 ASTM l (excellent lightfastness)

*Perylene Maroon PR 179 ASTM l (excellent lightfastness but lacks brightness)

*Perylene Scarlet PR 190 ASTM l (very good light fastness)

*Anthraquinoid Red PR 177 ASTM l (very transparent, fades in tints)

*Brominated Anthranthrone PR 168 ASTM l l (dull, low-strength tints)

Benzimidazolone Red HFT, aka Benzimidazolone Maroon PR 175 ASTM l (lacks brightness)

*Ultramarine Red PV 15 ASTM l (too pale and weak to be useful)

Permanent Red, aka Thioindigoid Red. PR 88 ASTM l (excellent lightfastness, recommended)

ORANGES:

Cadmium Orange PO 20  ASTM l (get CP grade, otherwise has 15% Barium Sulfate)

Perinone Orange PO 43  ASTM l (perfect alt. to Cadmium Orange if more transparency needed)

Quinacridone Burnt Orange PO 206 ASTM l (beautiful dark reddish, similar to burnt sienna)

Quinacridone Gold PO 48 ASTM l (lacks brightness in tints but excellent light fastness)

YELLOWS:

Mars Yellow aka Yellow Oxide PY 42 ASTM  l (a more pure yellow than the natural ochre)
Yellow Ochre aka Brown Ochre PY 43  ASTM  l (used since the dawn of time, esp. fleshtones)

Cadmium Yellow PY 37  ASTM  l (Although industry accepts up to 15% Barium and/or Lithopone as normal, the Chemically pure Cadmium Sulfide has a cleaner color and is noticeably stronger in tinting strength. The description 99.9% Cadmium Sulfide or the initials CP seen on the label of a few of the best grades of artist’s paint refers to the Chemically Pure Cadmiums.)

*Cadmium Yellow Light PY 35  ASTM  l (Zinc in cadmium zinc sulfide may not be not as stable as the Cadmium component and so the palest lemons are not regarded as light fast as the less light versions. The color is close to being the perfect mixing yellow as it is very close to “primary yellow.” If you use, Chemically Pure—CP— pigment is recommended.)

*Aureolin PY 40 ASTM  l l
Nickel Titanate aka Nickel Yellow or Nickel Titanium Yellow PY 53 ASTM  l (recommended)
*Arylide Yellow PY 65 ASTM  l

*Arylide Yellow GX PY 73  ASTM  l

*Arylide Yellow 5GX PY 74  ASTM  l

*Diarylide Yellow HR70 PY 83  ASTM  l

*Arylide Yellow FGL PY 97 ASTM  l

Nickel Azo Yellow PY 150 ASTM  l (very greenish yellow, excellent light fastness)

Benzimidazolone Yellow H4G PY 151 ASTM l (green-yellow, excellent lightfastness, dull tints)

Nickel Dioxine Yellow PY 153 ASTM  l (a bright yellow, makes dull tints)

Benzimidazolone Yellow H3G PY 154 ASTM  l (excellent light fastness, makes dull tints)

Benzimidazolone Yellow HLR PY 156 ASTM  l (transparent, excellent light fastness, dull tints)

Benzimidazolone Yellow H6G PY 175 ASTM  l (excellent light fastness, dull tints)

*Hansa Yellow Medium aka Arylide Yellow G, Azo Yellow PY 1 ASTM  l l  (Fades in tints.

PY 73 is virtually same color but has better light resistance. Being used less and less. Can bleed.)

*Hansa Yellow Light PY 3 ASTM  l l (transparent, greenish, fades in tints)

*Arylide Yellow 10GX. PY 98 ASTM  l l (bright, greenish, stronger than PY 3)

Anthrapyrimidine Yellow PY 108 ASTM l (transparent,bright,excellent lightfastness, avr.drying)

Flavanthrone Yellow PY 112 ASTM  l  (transparent, reddish, excellent light fastness, avr.drying)

*Zinc Yellow aka Zinc Chromate PY 36 ASTM  l l (Smithsonian says don’t use—it cracks!)

*Strontium Yellow aka Barium Chromate, Lemon Yellow PY 32 ASTM  l l

*Chrome Yellow PY 34 ASTM  l l (quickly discolors, darkens, poisonous, impermanent, avoid)

Naples Yellow aka Antimony Yellow PY 41 ASTM  l (Can get from Kremers. Greenish to pinkish pale. Tubes are often mixed white,ochre,red.Genuine pigment excellent, permanent;lead)

Isoindolone Yellow R PY 110 ASTM 1 (exceptional bright reddish, excellent tinting strength)

*Kings Yellow aka Orpiment PY 39 ASTM  l l  (Arsenic! Impermanent and poisonous)

*Massicot PY 46 ASTM  l l (poisonous, quite impermanent)

*Gamboge NY 24 ASTM  l l (golden glazing yellow, impermanent, replaced by Aureolin)

*Quercitron Lake NY 9 ASTM  l l

*Saffron NY 6 ASTM  l l (poor lightfastness, used in food prep.)

*Turmeric NY 3 ASTM  l l (poor lightfastness, used in food prep.)

Bismuth Yellow PY 184 aka Vanadium Yellow ASTM  l (like cad yellow but more transparent)

GREENS:

Chromium Green Oxide PG 17 ASTM  l (Dull, opaque, great permanence. Photographs under infra red as living foliage and so is used for military camouflage.)
Viridian aka Guignet’s Green PG 18 ASTM l (bright bluish, wise to pay premium for pure grade)

Cobalt Green PG 19, Light Green Oxide PG 50 (better) ASTM 1 (bright; low tinting strength)

Pthalo Green aka Monastral Green PG 7 (bluer), PG 36 (yellower) ASTM l (displacing Viridian)

Green Earth aka Terre Verte, Bohemian Earth, Burnt Green Earth PG 23 ASTM l (weak pigment; manufacturers usually use permanent, stronger mix of Sienna and Pthalo Green instead)

Hooker’s Green PG8 ASTM 111 (Avoid! Mix your own with Cad Yellow and Pthalo Blue)

Cadmium Green PG 14 ASTM l (Hard to find. Mix your own with Cad Yellow and Cobalt Blue)

BLUES:

Ultramarine PB 29 ASTM l (chemically identical to Lapis Lazuli) (30 different shades; brittle)

Cobalt Blue PB 28 ASTM l (Miners believed there were spirits in the mines called ‘Kobalds’ in the local tongue. Cobalt is named after these spirits that inhabited the mines. Fairly flexible.)

Pthalo Blue PB 15, 16 ASTM l (replaces Prussian Blue; especially good for mixing green-blues)
Cerulean Blue PB 35 ASTM l (one of the most opaque colors on the palette; fairly flexible)

Cobalt Chromate PB36 ASTM 1 (Beautiful turquoise–don’t confuse with Cerulean)

*Prussian Blue PB 27, also called Antwerp Blue, Paris Blue, Milori Blue, Iron Blue

*Azurite aka Bremen Blue PB 30 (doesn’t mix well in oils)

Indanthrone PB 22 ASTM 1 (clear deep blue, not as overpowering as Pthalo Blue)

Egyptian Blue aka Blue Frit PB 31 (largely disappeared in the 18th century)

Smalt (direct descendant of Egyptian Blue; weak but very permanent; popular until Ultramarine)

Zirconium Cerulean Blue PB 71 (A beautiful semi-opaque light blue, available from Kremer)

PURPLES:

Cobalt Violet PV 14 ASTM l (absolutely permanent, makes a hard, fairly flexible oil paint film)
Manganese Violet PV 16 ASTM l (reddish or blue shade, low tint strength, fast drying, flexible)

Quinacridone Violet PV 19 (red to red-violet) PR 122 (magenta) ASTM l (There are no inorganic pigments with this brilliance and purity;transparent, hard, fairly flexible, average drier)

*Dioxazine Violet PV 23  ASTM  l l (not nearly as permanent or lightfast as other violets)

Mars Violet aka Caput Mortuum PR 101 ASTM l (Confusingly indexed as a red. Superb! Use for tree trunks/old wood/summer landscapes. Used far less than it deserves. Means “head of the dead” and is the color of dried blood.)

Ultramarine Violet PV 15 ASTM 1 (great permanence; too weak to be of much use in oil paint)

Isoviolanthrone Violet PV 31 ASTM 1 (an excellent pigment of high light fastness)

BROWNS:

Raw Umber PBr 7 ASTM  l (Many color variants. Best pigment is from Cyprus, Turkey)

Burnt Umber aka Turkey Brown PBr 7 ASTM  l (many color variants, best from Cyprus)

Raw Sienna aka Italian Earth PBr 7 ASTM  l (browner than Yellow Ochre, wide color variety)

Burnt Sienna PBr 7 ASTM  l (“Half burnt” light browns to fiery oranges beloved by artists. Worth top dollar for best colors and hunting down color variants–some are extraordinary.)

Mars Brown  PBr 6 ASTM  l (Usually a blend of PY 42, PR101, PBk 11. Smoky brown, harder to find in natural earths. Lacks beautiful transparency loved in the Siennas and Umbers.)

*Van Dyke Brown also known as Cassel Earth or Cologne Earth (disastrous—always avoid)

*Asphaltum, aka Mummy, Asphaltum, Egyptian Brown (Avoid at all costs)

WHITES:

Titanium White aka Titanium Dioxide  PW 6  ASTM  l  (best all round white, very opaque)

*Zinc White PW 4 ASTM  l (28-year study: Smithsonian says take it off  palette—it cracks!)

Lead White, aka Flake, Cremnitz, Underpainting White, and Silver White PW 1 ASTM 1

BLACKS:

Mars Black aka Iron Black, Black Iron Oxide PBk 11 ASTM  l (fast drier)

Ivory Black aka Bone Black PBk 9 ASTM  l (slow drier—never use in underpainting)

*Lamp Black aka Carbon Black, Vegetable Black, Furnace Black PBk 6 ASTM  l

*Vine Black also called Drop Black, Frankfort Black, Peach Black, Spanish Black, Blue Black.

MISC:

*Metals PM 1, PM 2, PM 3, etc.  ASTM – Not tested. All except gold are poor.

Gold  PM 3 ASTM  l

*Mica PW 20 ASTM – Not Tested

Mica Titanate ASTM – Not Tested (New, micronized mica in wide range of metallic colors—appear to be highly light fast and useable in all media.)

MORE PIGMENT INFORMATION FROM:

RGH Paints, Pigment Identification Chart,  http://www.rghartistoilpaints.com/index.html

Explanation of Pigment Identification Chart:

(P Value) Permanence as rated by the ASTMD in Artists’ Oil and Artists’ Acrylic Emulsion Paints, as follows:

1. Excellent     2. Very Good     3. Good     4. Fair     5. Poor

(T Value) Transparency/Opacity as follows:

1, Least Transparent (Most Opaque), to 8, Most Transparent (Least Opaque)

Index Name

Pigments throughout the world are given a Color Index Name. This is an international code.

Remember that the science of paint continues to evolve, bringing us ever-more exciting options to use; so do some research on your own and learn more about it.  I’ll be posting more information on this next time.