PAINTING WHITE TO PLEASE THE HUMAN EYE

Since Aristotle was the first person we know of that gave serious, objective thought to the rainbow and rainbow color theory, it behooves us as artists to contemplate it as well. This instruction is written as though the artist is new to the concepts of painting in spectrum white color, and approaching the process for the first time. Thus, I apologize in advance if what follows seems overly simplistic, but these details may prove helpful to some.

Firstly, two important points should be mentioned here:

1) When mixing the greyscale, this is how to get a true, neutral set of greys; otherwise, they will tend toward blue: adding just the barest touch of raw umber to the black pile of paint on your palette is important. Preferably use mars black, as it is generally less blue than ivory black. Then lighten a small bit of it to check that you have not added too much umber—this will make it look dirty if you have, and you do not want the whole pile polluted.

2) Although the tube colors for white spectrum are customary for the purposes of demonstration, they are still somewhat flexible. For example, you may find that you have manganese violet in your paint box but not cobalt violet; or you may find that your garment is in a warmer light setting and you would prefer using a violet commensurate with that. It is okay.

It Always Goes Back To Values

However, despite guides and formulae, you must still understand why you are choosing to paint with spectrum white, and be able to determine your darkest and lightest values in the three situations/conditions outlined below: *Light, Shadow, and Sunset. After determining the situation, you look at the garment and think like this: “My darkest dark is a value 3 so, since purple is first on the rainbow spectrum (following their order) and comes out of the tube at value 1, I will lighten my purple with white until it is a value 3. Then, I can tint some grey with it, which should result in a purple-ish white value 3. The next color in the spectrum is ultramarine, so I will lighten that color to a value 4, and then mix it with a value 4 grey,” and so on, up the spectrum.

Remember that, ultimately, we don’t want the whites on our paintings to be white, but we want to portray a colorful rainbow spectrum that viewers perceive as white, thereby adding an almost otherworldly glow and sparkle. However, avoid excessive color in the greyscale.  We want the viewer to remark, “What a vibrant white dress!” not, “Look at all the colors in that dress—what is that supposed to be?”

Paint Mixing

SpectrumWhitePaletteP1110237

Situation 1:  Here are the Munsell/rainbow spectrum colors in the light, by name, from dark to light, and their oil paint equivalents:

  • (*1) Purple —Cobalt Violet (or Dioxazine Purple, or Ultramarine Blue+Alizarin Crimson Perm.)
  • (*1) Purple-Blue —Ultramarine Blue
  • (*3 or 4) Blue —Cerulean Blue (or Phthalo Blue+Phthalo Green)
  • (*1) Blue-Green —Viridian Green (or Phthalo Green)
  • (*5) Green —Cadmium Green (or Hansa Yellow+Viridian)
  • (*8) Yellow-Green —Phthalo Yellow Green (or extra Hansa Yellow+Viridian)
  • (*9) Yellow —Cadmium Yellow Lt.
  • (*7) Yellow-Red —Cadmium Orange
  • (*4 1/2) Red —Napthol Red Lt.
  • (*1) Red-Purple —Alizarin Crimson Permanent (or Phthalo Rose)
                –Titanium White
                –Mars Black

*numbers indicate the value of the color, directly out of the paint tube

Situation 2:  The oil paint colors to use for spectrum white in shadow, dark to light, are:

  • Alizarin Crimson Permanent (or Phthalo Rose)
  • Cobalt Violet (or Dioxazine Purple, or Ultramarine Blue+Alizarin Crimson Perm.)
  • Ultramarine Blue
  • Cerulean Blue (or a mixture of Phthalo Blue+Phthalo Green)

Situation 3:  Finally, although it may seem strange to start in the middle of the spectrum with Cerulean as the darkest value, the list still follows the spectrum order. The oil paint colors to use for sunsets, seascapes, or snow, dark to light, are:

  • Cerulean Blue (or a mixture of Phthalo Blue+Phthalo Green)
  • Ultramarine Blue
  • Cobalt Violet (or Dioxazine Purple, or Ultramarine Blue+Alizarin Crimson Perm.)
  • Alizarin Crimson Permanent (or Phthalo Rose)
  • Napthol Red Lt.
  • Cadmium Orange
  • Cadmium Yellow Lt.

Here is the resulting color chart, and the explanation of each row of the chart:

PaintingSpectrumWhiteColorChart        

Situation 1
Row 1, Greyscale, V3-9
Row 2, each color lightened to match respective grey values
Row 3, the result of mixing greys with respective color values
Situation 2
Row 2, lightened to match grey values 5-8
Row 3, the result of mixing greys with respective color values
Situation 3
Row 2, each color lightened to match respective grey values from row 1
Row 3, the result of mixing greys with respective color values

A note here—Sometimes you will need half-steps in your values, so keep in mind that just because you have only 4 colors to use for shadows (for example), does not mean you necessarily have only 4 values to address in your white shadows. You may have 5 or more values in your shadows, so you simply spread these four colors to a broader value range, commensurate with the needs of your painting. The same holds true for the other two situations outlined above.

We must also keep in mind the concept of “reflected light” as it relates to white objects and how they will be affected. Everything that is near your white object or garment, whether it is an apple or a curtain, will be reflected somewhere in that white object or garment, so a way to handle those reflected lights might be to gently glaze the reflected light color on top of the painted spectrum white object after it dries. Of course, the handling of this will be very painting-specific, and the way you accomplish it for one painting, might not be the same for the next, but it is something to keep in mind.

Now What? Analyze which situation applies to your painting, then paint it from dark to light using these instructions.  In a previous post, I have painted a quick example on the use of spectrum white that might be a useful reference.

*A big “thank you” goes to Charlene Higley for differentiating and fine-tuning these three conditions.

Advertisements

HOW CREATIVE PEOPLE SUCCEED

I rarely re-post work by someone else on this site, but I read an article by a best-selling author, Jeff Goins, called The Unfair Truth About How Creative People Succeed.  In it, Jeff posits some insightful ideas about creativity, luck, and being in the right place at the right time, and I would love to hear your own insights and views on the subject.  Here is the text:

The other week, I was invited to a dinner hosted by a friend. Those attending included people I’ve admired for years. Halfway through the dinner, I silently asked myself, “How did I get here?”

For years, I heard people talk about their influential friendships and subsequent success, and I would seethe with envy. It seemed unfair. Of course those people were successful. They knew the right people. They were in the right place at the right time. They got lucky.

Years later, I would discover that success is born of luck (I don’t think any honest person can dispute that). But luck, in many ways, can be created — or at very least, improved.

The truth is life is not fair. For creative work to spread, you need more than talent. You have to get exposure to the right networks. And as unfair as that may seem, it’s the way the world has always worked.

The good news, though, is you have more control over this than you realize.

Creativity: A Systems Approach

What makes a person creative? Of course, as human beings we are all endowed with the ability to create. But what is the difference between that kind of “little c” creativity and the world-changing “big C” creativity that changes industries and leaves a legacy for generations to come?

In his decades-long study of creativity, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes what he calls a “systems approach.” Since creative work tends to be subjective, he posits a model that includes three systems. They are:

  • The Domain
  • The Field
  • The Individual

In order for a work to be considered Creative (in the sense that it offers some kind of enduring work the world remembers), it must satisfy all three of these areas. Here’s how it works.

First, an individual must master her craft in a given domain (art, science, mathematics). Then, this person must offer the creative work to a field of influencers in that domain who are trusted experts. Finally, the gatekeepers decide if the work is worth being accepted as authoritative into the domain.

That’s the systems approach to creativity.

And as much as I initially winced at the word “gatekeepers” when considering what makes creative work succeed, once I started reading biographies of famous artists, scientists, and musicians, it made a lot of sense. Talent is only part of the equation. The rest is network.

Hemingway, Paris, and Enduring Work

When he was just a young man in his early twenties, Ernest Hemingway moved from Chicago, Illinois to a poor district in Paris. He had just returned from a short stint of serving with the Red Cross in World War I and wanted to pursue a career in writing. There was just one problem: he didn’t have much exposure to other writers.

Who would teach him?

In Chicago, Hemingway met Sherwood Anderson who encouraged him to move to Paris to meet Gertrude Stein, who led a community of writers, poets, and artists there. Plus, it was cheaper to live in Paris, and Hemingway could live modestly while still having time to travel and write.

In Paris, he met Stein, as well as Ezra Pound, James Joyce, and many others who would shape his work for years to come. This included a connection via F. Scott Fitzgerald to Scribner’s, the publisher that would later publish his novels and change the course of his career forever.

Before that decade in Paris, Hemingway was a writer of some notable talent and a pretty good journalist. But after those years immersed in the creative work of others, he was a household name.

Due to the connections created through that community, Hemingway became one of the most famous writers of the 20th Century. It’s inconceivable such a development could have happened anywhere else. Not because there was something special about the Left Bank at that time, but because without a network, creative work does not endure.

Without a network, creative work does not endure.

In other words, without Paris, there is no Hemingway. But what does that mean for mere mortals like you and me?

Finding Your Own Paris

Are we doomed to failure if we don’t live in the right place at the right time?

Of course not. But networks matter, maybe more than we care to admit. Vincent van Gogh’s work matured much more quickly once he met the French Impressionists. And why wouldn’t it? He now had a field of gatekeepers who both critiqued and validated his work.

Whether we like it or not, we all need some kind of objective standard against which to measure our work. And although van Gogh did not sell much of his work in his lifetime, it was the tenacity of a well-connected sister-in-law who eventually brought his paintings to market. In fact, most of the great art the world has ever seen came about not through a single stroke of genius but by the continual effort of a community.

Great art does not come about through a single stroke of genius, but by the continual effort of a community.

Networks. Partnerships. Creative collaborations. This is where enduring work originates, and, incidentally, is how we get works like The Lord of the Rings and The White Album. Creativity is not a solitary invention but a collaborative creation. And communities create opportunities for creative work to succeed.

But how do you apply this approach if you don’t live some place like Paris, New York, or Rome?

Well, of course, you could move. According to Csikszentmihalyi, it’s better to move somewhere new than it is to will yourself to be more creative. And now, it’s easier than ever to transplant yourself someplace inspiring, even if temporarily. I did this eight years ago, relocating from northern Illinois to Nashville and unknowingly implanted myself into what would become a hub of creativity, technology, and entrepreneurship. I’m glad I did.

But you could also let go of your excuses and realize there’s a network available to you right now, wherever you are. This may come in the form of an online mastermind group or a series of events you attend, maybe even one you organize yourself. The truth is there are connections everywhere and always more resources available to those willing to look.

A Seat at the Table

Five years ago, I decided to do something radical — well, radical for me at least. I let go of my cynicism and began reaching out to influential bloggers and authors, people I had watched for years and wanted to know. I asked them to meet me for coffee. And here’s the crazy part: most of them said yes.

Even though I was a shy person, I met these heroes of mine and followed up with them, doing everything I could think of to help them. In some cases, it just meant buying their coffee. In others, I would interview them for my tiny blog, realizing that even the most influential people don’t mind talking about themselves.

I tried to be the kind of person these people would want to invest in — following every piece of advice they gave, doing everything they told me to do, and not questioning a single word of it. And at some point, I got lucky.

It’s naive to say success doesn’t involve luck. Of course, it does. Crazy stuff happens all the time, stuff we can’t control that sometimes works in our favor. At the same time, luck is not completely out of your control. Luck can be planned, anticipated. Although I can’t tell when or where luck is going to come from, I do know the more you put yourself in the company of greatness, the more likely some of that greatness will rub off on you.

So if you want a seat at the table, the process might look something like this:

  1. Find a gatekeeper. For Hemingway, this was Sherwood Anderson and eventually Gertrude Stein. These were the people who held the keys to the kingdom, and every domain has at least one. Find someone who is connected to the people you want to know, and be strategic in reaching out, tenacious in staying in touch, and intentional in demonstrating your competency.
  2. Connect with other people in the network. Stein introduced Hemingway to other writers in Paris who could help him, but he was also relentless about meeting with them. He used to spar with Ezra Pound on a regular basis, boxing him and learning how to write terse prose in the process. If you show the gatekeeper you’re willing to learn, he or she will likely introduce you to others and keep investing in you.
  3. Help as many people as possible. This is crucial. It’s not just who you know, it’s who you help. People remember what you do for them a lot more than they remember how clever you were. In spite of his reputation as an alpha male, Hemingway did this, too — helping Stein get her work published, encouraging Fitzgerald when he suffered from creative blocks, and bringing attention to the work of the Left Bank.

Of course, every person’s journey is their own. But what I am now more certain of than ever before is that success in any creative field is contingent on the networks you are a part of. The question is, will you embrace the power of networks, or will you keep thinking those people are just lucky?

Luck comes to us all. But those who recognize it are the ones who succeed. Every story of success is really a story of community, and the way you find yours is by reaching out and taking advantaage of the opportunities that present themselves — whether that’s in Paris, Chicago, or your own hometown.